There are many examples of artwork that were created to express the hardships of the Inductrial Revolution. A good example is the one below called The Third Class Carriage:
This is an oil painting on canvas by Honore Daumier created between 1862-1864. The image shows a crowded car of the working-class people. Many people could not afford better transportation so one can only imagine how uncomfortable and unsanitary it was on these cars.
Paintings of the landscape that was affected by the Industrial Revolution was a very popular subject. Here is an example below:
Here you can see that there are some major effects to the landscape because of the buildings and factories. It looks very overwhelming, especially with the excessive smoke coming from the chimney and the many workers surrounding it.
“Honoré Daumier: The Third-Class Carriage (29.100.129)”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. 6 Feb 2012 <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/29.100.129>
“Industrial Revolution.” Exploringartsyles.yolasite.com. Yola. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. <http://exploringartstyles.yolasite.com/industrial-revolution.php>.
Posted by: Julia Jin
Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801, Philip James De Loutherbourg
Artist Philip James De Loutherbourg puts the blaze from the factory against an idyllic woodland and rustic landscape. The mood implies Loutherbourg negatively viewed Industrialization.
Honore Daumier spent time in prison after creating this political cartoon depicting King Louis-Philippe as Rabelais’ Gargantua when he was released he made this lithograph for a political weekly begun by Charles Philipon in 1830 and closed by the government in 1835.
posted by crystal montgomery
“Now, 70 years after the end of World War II, thanks to the excavations in eastern Poland, these unknown soldiers are getting a proper burial.”
“V: Good evening, London. Allow me first to apologize for this interruption. I do, like many of you, appreciate the comforts of the everyday routine, the security of the familiar, the tranquility of repetition. I enjoy them as much as any bloke. But in the spirit of commemoration – whereby those important events of the past, usually associated with someone’s death or the end of some awful bloody struggle, are celebrated with a nice holiday – I thought we could mark this November the fifth, a day that is sadly no longer remembered, by taking some time out of our daily lives to sit down and have a little chat.
There are, of course, those who do not want us to speak. I suspect even now orders are being shouted into telephones and men with guns will soon be on their way. Why? Because while the truncheon may be used in lieu of conversation, words will always retain their power. Words offer the means to meaning and for those who will listen, the enunciation of truth. And the truth is, there is something terribly wrong with this country, isn’t there?
Cruelty and injustice…intolerance and oppression. And where once you had the freedom to object, to think and speak as you saw fit, you now have censors and systems of surveillance, coercing your conformity and soliciting your submission. How did this happen? Who’s to blame? Well certainly there are those who are more responsible than others, and they will be held accountable. But again, truth be told…if you’re looking for the guilty, you need only look into a mirror.
I know why you did it. I know you were afraid. Who wouldn’t be? War. Terror. Disease. There were a myriad of problems which conspired to corrupt your reason and rob you of your common sense. Fear got the best of you and in your panic, you turned to the now High Chancellor Adam Sutler. He promised you order. He promised you peace. And all he demanded in return was your silent, obedient consent.
Last night, I sought to end that silence. Last night, I destroyed the Old Bailey to remind this country of what it has forgotten. More than four hundred years ago, a great citizen wished to embed the fifth of November forever in our memory. His hope was to remind the world that fairness, justice and freedom are more than words – they are perspectives. So if you’ve seen nothing, if the crimes of this government remain unknown to you, then I would suggest that you allow the fifth of November to pass unmarked. But if you see what I see, if you feel as I feel, and if you would seek as I seek…then I ask you to stand beside me, one year from tonight, outside the gates of Parliament. And together, we shall give them a fifth of November that shall never, ever, be forgot!”
“V: Voilà! In view, a humble vaudevillian veteran, cast vicariously as both victim and villian by the vicissitudes of Fate. This visage, no mere veneer of vanity, is a vestige of the vox populi, now vacant, vanished. However, this valorous visitation of a by-gone vexation, stands vivified and has vowed to vanquish these venal and virulent vermin vanguarding vice and vouchsafing the violently vicious and voracious violation of volition. (he carves a “V” into a sign) The only verdict is vengence; a vendetta, held as a votive, not in vain, for the value and veracity of such shall one day vindicate the vigilant and the virtuous. (giggles) Verily, this vichyssoise of verbiage veers most verbose, so let me simply add that it is my very good honor to meet you and you may call me V.”
When thinking about World War Two, many people believe that the Americans “won the war” with the invasions at D-Day, but it is important to remember that there was more than just one front in the war in Europe and with the other front comes another story. Many more Russians fought and died in World War Two than Americans did. The war on the western front was also harsher than that on the eastern front. While many people recognize Hitler’s aggression against Jews, not many people think about the racial aggression he had against the slavs, their are many documented cases of Hitler describing them as “sub-human.” These views are easily seen when one looks at his policy of war against the eastern front, total annihilation of any resistance. German forces would often strip towns of food and destroy their shelter, leading to starvation, that is if they weren’t killed for opposing the German forces. The eastern front was also the only front to have Einsatzgruppen soldiers follow behind the normal soldiers to wipe out civilians. The eastern front was also brutal with prisoners, while the prisoners on the western front had some living conditions available to them, the eastern fronts’ prisoners commonly faced death on either side. While many people talk about World War Two being devastating and terrible on the western front, it is also important to note that the eastern front was even worse, with more casualties, both civilian and military, and poorer living conditions with all out destruction being the purpose of war.
Source/For more information, see: http://www.eisenhowerinstitute.org/about/living_history/wwii_soviet_experience.dot
The role of art is to be able to accurately portray the state of thing in the world, one artists who can be said to have attempted this great venture is Otto dix, who did art in the first World War. Instead, of trying to capture the “glory of War,” as people attempted to do in previous generations. He was haunted by much of the warfare that he experienced, a good example of this is his piece modern warfare.
Another piece that is on the meaning of war is “Its Meaning.” The picture seems tom imply that war hurts during and after the war.
The other works he did seem to bring home the idea that War Makes people inhuman. The underlying cynicism is understandable. War creates a vacuum in which whatever ideas that we beliefs we have are forced into the light, and are challenged by the und. rlying reality of living
The united States has classically held to the view that America is not an Empire, of course, in recent years this has been put under scrutiny, but pushed into America had in its formation resolved to not get into any of the conflicts that were to happen in Europe.
One question that might occur to one is “Why would a nation founded with philosophy suddenly do exactly that and get involve in a European conflict?” The answer is that Britain allegedly intercepted what was called the “Zimmerman note.” According to David Kahn, author of The Codebreakers, “No other single cryptanalysis has had such enormous consequences.”
According to the British it was an intercepted encoded message that promised American land to Mexico provided their military assistance. Even though President Woodrow Wilson went by the slogan “He kept us out of war.” Because of the seemingly impending threat from Germany. Given that America had already been politically severed from Germany, it was the already given anti-German sentiment that per-existed launched America into World War I.
References : http://www.history.com/news/ask-history/what-was-the-zimmermann-telegram
About a hundred years ago Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. This sent Europe into the first world war , which caused 14 million deaths , crushed empires, and redrew the borders in Europe. His assassin is now seen as a symbol of the four year long war “Sarajevo is now a symbol of a century of wars in Europe but we are here to talk about peace and reconciliation,” said Joseph Zimet.
The next thing that happened as Churchill put it, it, was a “drama never surpassed.” This brought European diplomat into the position of both doing a number of diplomatic maneuver , and adhering to a number of different alliances among European powers. This brought in France, Britain, Russia, and the ottoman Empire into the fight.
Sean McMeekin, a professor at Koc University in Istanbul says that “McMeekin and a whole tradition of World War I historians argue that even after Ferdinand’s assassination, war was not a fait accompli. Indeed, in Europe and across the pond in the United States, many learning of the archduke’s death were less concerned with the drumbeats of war than the question of Austrian succession. The Washington Post, for example, published this largely fluffy piece on the royal who became the heir presumptive
The Battle of Britain was an air battle involving Great Britain’s Royal Air Force fighting Germany’s elite air unit known as the Luftwaffe. It started with the Luftwaffe bombarding British naval and military installations to prepare for a cross-Channel invasion. The British retorted with a bombing of several German cities. Hitler was prepared and fought back even harder with a night bombardment of London. The Battle of Britain lasted for two months to take control of the skies. The German casualties were twice as high as those of the RAF and forced Hitler to abandon his plans. The Battle gave courage back to the people of Great Britain and the news of the victory sparked motivation through Europe.
Franforter, Daniel, and William Spellman. West: A Narrative History. 3rd ed. Vol. 2. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2103. Print.
In the late 1840s, the threat of massive rebellions against the Italian States by nationalist movements became a reality. A major revolution broke out in the city of Palermo which managed to crush the local army. Resulting from this spark, multiple rebellions of nationalists broke out across the peninsula and eventually in many cities across Europe. During the fighting, wars broke out between the Austrians and the Piedmont before spreading to other states in 1849. In this confusion, the Prime Minister of Rome, Pellegrino Rossi was assassinated, causing Pope Pius IX to flee.
The Papal government quickly fell apart and a liberal one rose to take its place. A republic was declared and became known as the Roman Republic. This government was headed by a triumvirate of Carlo Armellini, Aurelio Saddi, and Giuseppe Mazzini. This new government began to create reforms such as changes in the overbearing tax system, or allowing universal suffrage for men. The reforms also took public education out of the hands of the church and made the church’s property into state property.
During the period of the Roman Republic, strong efforts were not made to establish military defenses in Venice or Tuscany and the defenses set up in Rome were created much to late. Seeing opportunity, the Austrian Empire began to reclaim its territory from the north. Soon, Genoa and Tuscany surrendered from fighting and by May of 1849, the democrats only had control over Venice and Rome. Giuseppe Garibaldi led the defense of Rome as it was attacked by the Bourbons and the French (fighting under President Luis Napoleon, who was intending to restore the Pope). The siege of Rome lasted for two months before it’s surrender on July 2, 1849, capturing the attention of the world. In a last attempt to hold the republic, Garibaldi marched his troops northward to save Venice which would fall to the Austrians in August.
By John Strangfeld
Riall, Lucy. Risorgimento: The History of Italy from Napoleon to Nation State. N.p.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.
“The Italian Unification or Italian Risorgimento is known as the chain of political and military events that produced a united
Italian peninsula under the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. These events can be broken down in five stages: Pre-Revolutionary, Revolutionary, Cavour’s Policy
and the Role of Piedmont, Garibaldi’s Campaign in Southern Italy, and the creation of the Italian Kingdom.
I. Pre-Revolutionary Phase:
After the Napoleonic Wars and Napoleon Bonaparte’s second defeat, the major powers that has resisted met at a conference called the Congress of Vienna in
1815. The topic of discussion was to limit France’s power, set limits on nations so no one nation become too strong, and divide up the territory conquered up by Napoleon. In its negotiations, the congress returned domination of the Italian Peninsula to Austria. Austria now occupied Lombardy and Venice and had
considerable influence on other Italian states. One of the few places of independence was the Kingdom of Sardinia, which now controlled Piedmont, Nice, Savoy and Genoa. Some of the things that conflicted and interfered with the unification process were: Austrian control of Lombardy and Venice, several independent Italian states, the autonomy of the Papal States, and the limited power and influence of Italian leaders.
II. Revolutionary Phase:
During the first half of the 19th century, only aristocrats, intellectual, and upper middle class took the cause for unification. The masses showed no concern. However, the people with a passion for unification started to form secret societies, namely the Carbonari. Although at first, they only demanded more rights from their respective government, the cause began to grow. By 1820, the Carbonari were involved in numerous failed revolutions against the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, the Kingdom of Sardinia, Bolonga, and other Italian states. However, the Austrian Empire crushed all of these revolutions; thus leading to more
resentment from the Italians. The soul and spirit of the Carbonari and the revolutions was a man named Giuseppe Mazzini. Mazzini was an idealized who
wanted not only wanted a united Italy, but an Italy with a republican form of government. Mazzini brought the campaign for unification into the mainstream
when in 1831 he created Young Italy, a group created for the sole purpose to spread the ideas unification, revolutions, and republicanism. In 1846, a
liberal pope, Pius IX, was elected who enacted numerous reforms. Soon, other states followed but these reform movements were not enough. A series of uprising known as the Revolution of 1848 occurred throughout Europe including France, Germany, the Austrian Empire, and northern Italy. The revolution
also occurred in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies were the king signed a constitution. In the Papal States, radical took over Rome, causing the Pope to flee. In the
absence of the pope, Garibaldi and Mazzini created a republic called the Roman Republic. In Piedmont, after the insistence of nationals, the King Charles
Albert sent to Lombardy in their fight for freedom from Austrian rule. Although some of the revolutions were successful in the beginning, they were quickly
crushed. In 1849, France sent troops to Rome and destroyed the short-lived Roman Republic. Piedmont lost to Austria and the king was forced to abdicate,
causing his son, Victor Emanuel II to become king in 1849. After the unsuccessful events of the last few years, unification would seem as a distant dream. However, things were about to change with the appointment of Count Camillo di Cavour as prime minister of Piedmont in 852. With the use of all the
political and military tricks in the book, Cavour tackled and succeeded in making this dream into a reality. Italy and Europe would never be the same again.
Dipinto della Battaglia di Goito, Felice Cerruti Bauduc (1817-1896)
III. Cavour’s Policy and the Role of Piedmont
After the numerous failed uprisings throughout Italy, Camillo di Cavour became the prime minister of the Piedmont (Kingdom of Sardinia) in 1852. By the use of bargaining, putting great powers against each other, war, and political cunning, Cavour was able to unite Italy in a short time. Although Piedmont was
a small state, it had considerable influence due to its military strength, conservative philosophy, and admirable political leader. In addition, Victor
Emmanuel II ruled in conjunction with a parliament, thus establishing a legitimate stable form of government and not giving cause to an internal revolution.
Although Piedmont exercised a conservative policy, it was loose and constructive in many areas, especially commerce and industry. With the use of commercial treaties, Piedmont began to play an increasing role in commerce in the region as it started to win trade away from Austria. These actions served very popular with the public and were received further progress with Cavour’s appointment in 1852. Cavour had a strong belief in scientific and economic progress, and was a firm supporter of unification. However, he did not share the same republic views as Mazzini and Garibaldi. In Cavour’s view, unification needed a strong state to lead, namely Piedmont. And Piedmont can only become strong with railroads, economic freedom, stable finances, and a higher standard of living. Cavour immediately began by implementing some liberal (but necessary) ideas. He encouraged people to participate in government, started to change public opinion by skillfully using the press and the government, and economic freedom, and most importantly spread the propaganda of Italian unity under Victor Emanuel II. In order to achieve his goals, Cavour needed the help of a strong ally, the leader of France, Napoleon III. France proved to be a
good partner because it was a traditional enemy of Austria and any loss of Austrian influence would be beneficial. Also, Napoleon III showed favor to a
liberated and united Italian peninsula. To seal the deal of this partnership, both leaders met secretly at Plombieres, a French spa. Piedmont would stir up
trouble in one of the territories controlled by Austria, thus forcing Austria to go to war against Piedmont. France would help Piedmont in exchange for Nice
and Savoy. In April 1859, war broke out between Piedmont and Austria. The plan worked very well the joined forces of Piedmont and France won at Magenta and Solferino. Pretty soon, Prussia started to mobilize an army in Austria defense and more Italian provinces wanted to join Piedmont under one nation. Both of these events alarmed Napoleon III because Prussia was starting to have a strong presence in European affairs and more Italian states wanting unification
greatly exceeded what he had envisioned for Italy. So he signed an armistice with Austria and ended the war but angered Cavour. Piedmont received Lombardy from Austria as a result of the war. After the war and the political maneuvering, Piedmont had greatly increased its size.
However, Garibaldi’s campaign in southern Italy would more than double the size of the kingdom.
IV. Garibaldi’s Campaign in Southern Italy
If Mazzini was the soul of the unification process, then Garibaldi was the hero. In early 1860, he started to gather volunteers in Genoa for an expedition
to Sicily. As Cavour neither opposed nor helped, thousands of soldiers from Romagna, Lombardy, and Venetia set sail for Sicily in May 1860. The Expedition of Soldiers, as it was called, was an instant hit with the public. The Kingdom of Two Sicilies had long been a corrupt government and now
it was seeing its last days. Although the Garibaldi Red Shirts were less skilled and ill equipped, they were a tremendous success. They occupied Sicily within
two months and already Garibaldi was setting his eyes on mainland Italy. However, after his declaration to advance to Rome, instead of stopping in Naples, Cavour became increasingly worried. If Rome was attacked, France and Austria would immediately help the Pope and crush the opposing army, thereby
discrediting and destroying the unification agenda. In yet another brilliant move, Cavour encouraged riots and uprisings in the Papal States thus giving the
Piedmontese troops a reason to come under the pretext of maintaining order. In 1860, two thirds of the Papal States joined Piedmont and Rome was left alone. As the Piedmontese army bypassed Rome and the remaining Papal States and marched south, Garibaldi would surprise everyone with one of the most memorable gestures in history. On September 18, Garibaldi gave up command of his army and shook hands with Victor Emanuel II, signifying the unity and formation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.
Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian soldier. Photograph taken in 1866.
V. Creation of the Italian Kingdom
Although a Kingdom of Italy had been formed, it did not include all of Italy. The missing parts were Rome and Venetia. Neither could be gained easily because
Rome was under the protection of Napoleon III and French troops while Venetia was controlled by Austria and its troops. But an opportunity arrived and Venetia was annexed in 1866. That opportunity was the Seven Weeks’ War between Austria and Prussia. Austria promised Venetia if Italy stayed neutral and Prussia promised Venetia if Italy joined them in the war. Italy decided to join Prussia due to a previous agreement. Although the Italian army did poorly, Prussia won the war and it held up its part of the bargain. In 1870, the Franco-Prussian War occurred between France and Germany and Napoleon III was
forced to pull the French troops from Rome to aid the war effort. While Rome and the remaining Papal States remained unprotected, Italian troops marched in unopposed. In October 1870 Rome voted to join the union and in July 1871, it became the capital. The unification was a long and arduous process. But all the problems that remained before the unification were not solved after the unification. As the last quarter of the century unfolded, this was evident. But, Italy stayed united and focused on solving its new problems. In the end, Cavour, Garibaldi, and Mazzini became the founding fathers of a nation and were immortalized.”