The industrial revolution started in Britain, but other parts of Europe experienced it in their own ways. The French experienced less of a revolution and more of a slow evolution. The people of France were much more concentrated in the countrysides for far longer and only started to congregate more heavily in cities after railway lines were built. The railway lines, first built privately for the transport of coal and later built by the government for both economic and standard transport, were what lead to the more rapid industrailisation of France.
Paris quickly grew and as a result, started heaving at the restraints of its old, medieval style city planning. In desperate need of solutions, a man named Georges-Eugene (commonly known as Baron Haussmann) was employed to help solve the issue and would play an important role in creating the ‘modern’ city. He ordered the demolition and rebuilding of many buildings to allow for better traffic flow, and built other pieces of important infrastructure such as sewage systems. In the map below is a picture of Paris, of which all the red lines are streets built under Baron Haussman’s renovations
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