The Spanish Civil War was fought between 1936 and 1939. It was a conflict between the Republicans, of the Spanish Republic, and the Nationalists, who fought for the fascist General Franco.
The Nationalists were the military, landowners, and general upper class. They received help from fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. The Republicans were the urban workers, agricultural laborers, and middle class. They also had a fair share of militant anarchists. The Republicans received help from the Soviet Union and many international volunteers, including many well known authors such as Ernest Hemingway and George Orwell.
The war was brutal and bloody with both sides massacring many people. The war was seen by some as a practice run for World War II.
One of the most famous images to come out of the war was Pablo Picasso’s Guernica, depicting the Nazi bombing of the Basque town of Guernica.
Franco eventually won, starting Spain’s 40 years as a dictatorship.