The rise of the Northern Renaissance in Europe from the 16th to the early 17th century can be attributed to several factors. The first is the decline of feudalism. Money was becoming a medium of exchange, instead of land. Technology was improving in warfare and agriculture. Monarchies began to rise with the interest of eliminating feudal power, and many serfs were becoming free men. Feudalism was coming to an end in Europe and a new age was beginning. The second factor is the weakening of the Roman Catholic Church, which can be largely attributed to the rise of humanism. Artists became more interested in depicting the the perfection and flaws of humans rather than depicting religious figures in their work. The final factor is the invention of the printing press, which helped spread new ideas that had a huge impact on the Northern Renaissance. The mass printing of the Bible also helped give rise to the Protestant Reformation.