Trois Glorieuses

April 16, 2012 | Comments Off on Trois Glorieuses

Original Work by Jeffrey Hoehn     The Trois Glorieuses, the July Revolution, or the Second French Revolution.  It goes by many names.  This revolution saw the end of the Bourbon, and the rise of Louis Phillipe. The reasons for the revolution were twofold.  First, the new king, Charles X, was instilled by hereditary right […]

Georgi Plekhanov

April 12, 2012 | Comments Off on Georgi Plekhanov

Original Work by Jeffrey Hoehn The founding father of Russian Marxism.  A revered figure in Russian Communist Party.  All while opposing Lenin’s Bolshevik party to his death.  Georgi Plekhanov must have accomplished much during his lifetime to still be held in high esteem with the Communist Party while simultaneously opposing them. Plekhanov started his revolutionary […]


April 10, 2012 | Comments Off on Romanticism

Romanticism (Original Work by Jeffrey Hoehn) The rise of reason, and the Age of Enlightment rubbed off on many individuals as seeming too simplistic, and ordinary.  The 18th and 19th century would be home to a movement in literature and arts arising from the Age of Enlightment, and the industrial revolution known as Romanticism.  The […]

Italian Unification

March 27, 2012 | Comments Off on Italian Unification

By Jeffrey Hoehn (Original Work) After the Congress of Vienna, the Italian country we know today was split into several different independent governments.  Italy was all but united under a central power.  Italy consisted of Papal States, Sicily, Piedmont, Lombardy-Venetia, and several other governments.  As Metternich, the Austrian diplomat, would say, “Italy was nothing but […]

The Belgian Revolution

March 20, 2012 | Comments Off on The Belgian Revolution

By: Jeffrey Hoehn (Original Work) After Napolean was exiled to St. Helena, the Congress of Vienna met to ensure European peace after the Napoleonic wars.  One of the techniques to facilitate peace was to create strong buffer states, thus the Netherlands and Belgium were united to make the kingdom of the Netherlands under the rule […]

The Holy Alliance

February 28, 2012 | Comments Off on The Holy Alliance

By: Jeffrey Hoehn (Original Work) The Holy Alliance was derived out of the Quintuple Alliance in the Congress of Vienna on September 26th, 1815.  The main purpose of the Holy Alliance was to uphold Christianity as the prominent faith and reflected the return to Conservative politics in Europe.  Headed by Tsar Alexander, he wanted to […]

  Pictured above is a political cartoon drawn by the French Honore Daumier depicting King Louis Philippe, the final monarch of France before its revolution, feeding on the labor of the nation’s peasants. Daumier was considered notorious by French rule and the government attempted, unsuccessfully and eventually desperately, to censor his candidly negative depictions of […]

Waning of ballet in favor of opera in Italy during the Revolutions of 1848

February 17, 2012 | Comments Off on Waning of ballet in favor of opera in Italy during the Revolutions of 1848

There appears to be a lack of musical materials for ballets in the 1830s and 1840s, which is in part due to the dearth of publishing of keyboard reductions of ballets. Contributing to decline in materials may have been the prohibition of gambling in the 1820s, cited by Hansell, which had provided much of the main theatres’ budgets. Certainly […]

The words and concepts of Conservatism and Liberalism have changed in meaning since the nineteenth century.  Modern conservatives want less government intervention in their lives, which is the exact opposite of what it meant to be a conservative in the nineteenth century.  Another term for conservatism in this century is monarchism, as conservatives desired social […]

Napoleon’s vast reign of power came to an end in May, 1814.  His grand conquest expanded the French power deep throughout Europe.  Now that the Napoleon and the French had lost, the world powers had to figure out how to reconfigure Europe.  The Treaty of Paris was signed at Napoleons defeat and the main powers […]

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