Chapter Outlines

Chapter 12: Renaissance and Exploration

Larger Issue: How should a society use its history?

The Context for the Renaissance

The Culture of the Renaissance

The Northern Renaissance

The Middle East: The Ottoman Empire

Europe and Atlantic Exploration

Chapter 13: Reformation, Religious Wars, and National Conflicts

Larger Issue: How do civilized societies justify war?

The Lutheran Reformation

The Swiss Reformation

The Catholic Reformation

The Habsburg-Valois Wars

England’s Ambivalent Reformation

Convergence of Foreign and Domestic Politics: England, Spain, and France

The Final Religious Upheaval


Chapter 14: The Early Modern State

Larger Issue: How do political systems reflect the structure of social and economic life?

Society in Early Modern Europe

Forging Centralized States

Absolutism in France

Constitutionalism in England

Wars of Empire and Global Markets

Central and Eastern Europe

Europe’s Declining Powers

Chapter 15: New World Views: Europe’s Scientific Revolution

Larger Issue: How does the study of the natural world influence religious belief and the understanding of truth?

The Medieval World View

Anticipating the New Science

New Directions in Astronomy and Physics

New Approaches to Truth

Theory and Application

Politics as Science

Science as Religion

Superstition and Its Victims

Chapter 16: The Age of Enlightenment: Rationalism and its Uses

Larger Issue: How do people construct ideas of progress?

Critiquing the Traditional Way of Life

Formulas for Improving Material Conditions

Enlightened Despots

Critiquing the Enlightenment

The Arts in the Age of Reason

Chapter 17: Rebellion and Revolution: American Independence and the French Revolution

Larger Issue: Can political change occur without social and economic upheaval?

America Rejects Europe

Revolution in France

Napoleon Bonaparte and the Export of Revolution, 1799–1815

The French Revolution and the Americas


Chapter 18: Industry, Society, and Environment

Larger Issue: How do technology and urbanization influences the relationship between humans and nature?

From Rural to Urban Lifestyles in Europe

Agriculture, Demographics, and Labor

Innovations in Production

The Social Consequences of Industrialization

Industry, the State, and Global Power

Chapter 19: The Age of Ideology in Western Europe

Larger Issue: What leads people to challenge conventional ideas and practices?

The Congress System and the Conservative Agenda

Ideological Ferment

The Revolutions of 1848

Britain and Reform

The Romantic Movement

Utilitarianism and Utopian Socialism

The Marxist Challenge

Chapter 20: The Consolidation of Nation States

Larger Issue: Is nationalism a constructive force in the modern age?

Italian Unification

The Creation of Modern Germany

Constitutional Change in France and Britain

The Waning of the Habsburg, Russian, and Ottoman Empires

The United States and Western Europe

Nationalism and Race

Chapter 21: Global Empire and European Culture

Larger Issue: How does the projection of power reflect wider cultural values?

The New Imperialism: Motives and Methods

The Scramble for Empire: Africa

The Scramble for Empire: South and East Asia

The Legacy of Empire

Imperialism, Intellectual Controversy, and European Culture

Transformation in the Arts


Chapter 22: World War I: The End of Enlightenment

Larger Issue: Are nation states inherently adversarial?

The Alliance System

The Experience of Modern Warfare

The Eastern Front and Europe’s Empire

Naval War and American Entry

The Impact of Total War at Home

Bolshevik Revolution in Russia

Peace Settlement and European Consciousness

Chapter 23: The Troubled Interwar Years

Larger Issue: Can personal liberty be maintained under conditions of material hardship?

Postwar Problems in Western Europe

The Price of Victory

The Great Depression, 1929–1939

Coping with the Depression

Italy: The First Fascist State

Authoritarian Regimes in Spain and Eastern Europe

The Emergence of Nazi Germany

Imperial Japan

The Soviet Union under Stalin

Chapter 24: World War II: Europe in Eclipse

Larger Issue: Can the force of ideas sustain a civilization under attack?

The Process of Appeasement, 1933–1939

Nazism Triumphant, 1939–1941: Europe and North Africa

The German Empire

The Destruction of the Jews

The Home Front and the Role of Women

War in Asia and the Pacific

The Tide Turns, 1942–1945

Planning for the Postwar World


Chapter 25: Decolonization and the Cold War

Larger Issue: How does ideology shape public policy?

The Eclipse of Postwar Optimism

The End of European Empire

Expanding the Cold War

The Cold War and Nuclear Threat

Cuban Missile Crisis

Divisions and Detente

Chapter 26: Western Civilization and the Global Community

Larger Issue: Has the West defined the process of globalization?

The End of Communism

United Europe?

Science, Technology and the Envirnoment

Women and the Struggle for Equality

Religious Divides and Ethnic Nationalism

The Postindustrial West